Intrinsic, SiGe and compound semiconductors are the all-important building blocks of the modern world of electronics and communication. Scientists and engineers design materials with new characteristics, develop new production processes and ensure the quality of the products. X-ray methods provide a non-destructive way to obtain a large set of physical parameters of the semiconductor materials. With a wavelength that matches the crystalline lattice spacings involved, X-rays are the natural probe for any type semiconductor sample. Absolute analysis results without calibration are possible, in contrast to traditional methods that use wavelengths of the order of a micrometer.

The hot topic for all semiconductor applications is the examination of the samples, even on large 300 mm wafers, with about 50 µm spatial resolution, either for R&D as well as under routine production control conditions. Bruker AXS offers tailor-made solutions to fit your experimental needs.

Bruker Optics provides the expertise and leading FT-IR spectrometer technology for reliable and non-destructive Silicon quality control with infrared light for photovoltaics and electronics. Benefit from more than 30 years of experience in the field of infrared based semiconductor analysis. Bruker Optics FT-IR and RAMAN spectrometers are powerful investigative tools for a whole range of materials.

Bruker's electron microscope analyzers, such as EDS for SEM and TEM, EBSD, WDS and Micro-XRF, allow the analysis of texture (EBSD) and the element distributions down to ppm with high spatial resolution. Particularly fast analysis, such as needed in quality control or for large sample areas, is possible using a high collection angle device, such as the Bruker XFlash FlatQUAD detector.

Furthermore, Bruker's benchtop micro-XRF analyzers, such as the M4 TORNADO and the M4 TORNADOPLUS offer the trace element detection sensitivity of bulk XRF, while providing spatially resolved distribution analysis with spot sizes below 20 µm and detection ranges from Na for the M4 TORNADO and C for the M4 TORNADOPLUS up to Am. The M4 TORNADOPLUS with its light element tube and dual large area, light element silicon drift detectors, offers 10 times higher sensitivity for light elements over the M4 TORNADO. Furthermore, the M4 TORNADOPLUS boasts a patented aperture management system offering a narrower beam and high depth of field.

Silicon quality control

  • CryoSAS industrial Silicon quality control
  • Carbon and oxygen content analysis at  room temperature
  • Measurement of shallow impurities like boron and phosphorous by transmittance and/or photoluminescence (PL) at low temperature
  • According to SEMI, ASTM and DIN standards

For the whole range of materials

  • Analysis of passivation layers on semiconductors
  • Epi-layer thickness determination
  • Contactless sample measurement technique
  • At room, liquid N2 and liquid He temperatures
  • Transmittance, reflectance and photoluminescence mode
  • Applicable for macro- and microsized samples

Carbon and Oxygen quantification

Silicon based devices, such as integrated circuits, play a key role in everyday life. Furthermore, against the background of limited fossil fuels, Silicon based solar cells gain more and more in importance.

The majority of industrially produced Silicon is grown by processes (e.g. the Czochralski method), resulting in significant concentrations of interstitial Oxygen and substitutional Carbon. Depending on concentration as well as on the final application, these impurities can have both harmful and beneficial effects.

Determination of shallow impurities

Besides the concentration of Carbon and Oxygen also the content of so-called shallow impurities is of prime importance since they significantly affect the electrical properties (e.g. the resistivity) of the material. Shallow impurities can be subdivided into the group V elements P, As and Sb, acting as electron donors and the group III elements B, Al, Ga and In, affecting the Silicon as electron acceptors.

Semiconductor research and development

  • Phonon spectroscopy
  • Bandgap studies
  • Photoluminescence
  • Study of quantum wells, quantum dots and further hetero structures
  • Research and development of lasers and detectors