Please outline the methods you use to identify adulterated honey.
The AOAC 998 method, also referred to as the C4 sugar test, looks at a carbon 13 ratio, where the two major isotopes of carbon is Carbon-12 and Carbon-13. They're both stable, and they both occur naturally. The ratios of those two isotopes varies based on what type of plant the honey is from. The plants that bees go to have a specific signature of carbon-13 to carbon-12 as opposed to something like corn, where we get corn syrup.
You can measure the differences to a certain extent, but where the problem lies, is that method has some limitations in the limits of where you can actually use the data. Adulterators have also found other sugars that come from flowering plants similar to the plants that the bees go to, so now they can add those inverted sugars. Those sugars don't even show up in this test. You can have it over 50% beet sugar, for instance, in the honey, and you wouldn't be able to tell the difference from that test.
That test is largely no longer a good functional test. One of the main reasons is you're looking at one point of data, this one ratio. How much carbon-12 versus how much carbon-13 is in this particular sample, whereas with the honey profiling system with the NMR spectra, we have a multitude of points that we can look at. We have a signature series rather than just a discrete data point, and it's a much more powerful tool.
When you have this multitude of data coming off the spectra, the chances of you being able to fake a honey at that point is vanishingly small.