S2 PICOFOX, TXRF Spectrometer, Trace Analysis

Sample Preparation of Body Fluids, Salted Liquids, Beverages and Similar

Fast dilution procedure

  • Dilute a sample aliquot with 0.2 Vol.-% PVA or ultrapure water (whole blood 1:1, serum 1:5)
  • Add 10 μl IS solution (Ga, end conc. 0.2 mg/L) and homogenize
  • Blood samples: pipette 10 μl on an untreated sample carrier and dry by heat (60 °C)
  • Salt water: pipette 10 μl on a siliconized sample carrier, dry by vacuum and measure Cl, Br. Afterwards, the Cl matrix can be removed with 5 μl HNO3 and subsequent heating.

Samples with volatile elements

  • For samples containing volatile elements the use of fixation agents is recommended
  • Hg: add a 0.01 M thiourea solution in a ratio of 1:1 and dry by air in a clean bench


  • In case of small sample amounts the internal standard (IS) is used for dilution
  • Example: 10 μl of whole blood is diluted with 10 μl of IS solution (0,4 mg/L). After homogenization 10 μl of the mixture is pipetted on a carrier

TXRF benefits

  • Detection limits below 20 μg/L for metals
  • Fast sample preparation by a simple dilution step, no digestion required
Samples: beverages
Detection limits for urine, whole blood and serum, using non-digested reference standards