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Featured Application Notes and Briefs

Polymeric Films, Monolayers and Blends

Application Note 201: High-Resolution Chemical Imaging with Tapping AFM-IR

  • Tapping AFM-IR brings the power of both IR spectroscopy and AFM topography mapping to a much wider range of applications
  • Broadening the AFM-IR technique to include softer samples was enabled by the development of tapping mode–based IR measurements, where the tip is not continuously in contact with the sample but instead taps, making intermittent contact with the surface. 

 

Application Note 202: Chemical Characterization of Polymeric Films, Blends, and Self-Assembled Monomers

  • Until now, the major drawback of AFM has been its inability to chemically characterize the material underneath the tip.
  • When combined with an IR source, the resulting AFM-IR technique breaks the diffraction limit of conventional IR spectroscopy by orders of magnitude, while still providing the high-resolution imaging capabilities of AFM.

Application Brief: AFM-IR: Technology and Applications in Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy and Chemical Imaging

  • AFM-IR provides direct correlation to FTIR techniques enabling nanoscale FTIR
  • AFM-IR provides 10nm spatial resolution for chemical imaging of a wide range of materials

 

Application Brief: Surface Adhesion of Superoleophic Polymer-Nanoparticle Composite Surfaces

  • AFM-IR is used to create re-entrant geometries desirable for superoleophobicity via entrapment of nanoparticles in polycarbonate surfaces.

 

Application Brief: Radiation-Induced Reduction-Polymerization Route Synthesis of PEDOT conducting polymers

  • Reduction–polymerization route developed for synthesizing conducting polymers
  • Hydrated electrons used to reduce EDOT monomers into PEDOT polymers

 

Application Brief: Nanostructured Lipid-Based Films for Substrate-Mediated Applications in Biotechnology

  • Photothermal Induced Resonance IR Spectroscopy was used to analyze self-assembled lipid structures when introduced to drug samples

 

Application Brief: AFM-IR Spectroscopy and Imaging of Polymers Fibers and Thin Films at the Nanoscale

  • Photothermal Induced Resonance IR Spectroscopy was used to analyze self-assembled lipid structures when introduced to drug samples


Application Brief: Chloroform Induces Outstanding Crystallization of Poly(Hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) Vesicles within Bacteria

  • AFM-IR captures the correlation between structure, processing, and chain orientation/crystallinity in electrospun nanofibers and thin films
  • Determines how different processing protocols can alter the concentration of the stable alpha and metastable beta crystalline forms

 

Application Brief: Analysis of Nanodomain Composition in High-Impact Polypropylene by Atomic Force Microscopy-Infrared

  • Breakthrough AFM-IR technique provides quantification of chemical concentrations of polymer nanodomains

2D Materials and Nano-Photonics

  • The nanoIR system provides nanoscale IR spectra of photovoltaic materials, and correlates to conventional IR spectral databases
  • AFM-IR is able to detect phase separation in organic photovoltaic materials by correlating local chemical analysis with topographical information
  • The relative material stiffness within a defected region of a material can be mapped and analyzed via IR chemical contrast imaging


Application Note 151
: 2D Materials Characterization Using Nanoscale IR Spectroscopy and Material Property Mapping

  • Complementary Tapping AFM-IR and s-SNOM techniques provide 10nm spatial resolution mapping of chemical and complex optical properties for 2D materials.
  • Correlative microscopy is provided with AFM based nanoscale thermal, electrical and mechanical property mapping.


Application Brief
Direct Observation of Oxygen Configuration on Individual Graphene Oxide Sheets

  • AFM-IR was used to map oxygen bonding on graphene oxide sheets
  • Oxygen bonding was observed most often on the edges of graphene oxide sheets, in areas where graphene is folded, and in discrete domains
  • An updated structural model for graphene oxide was proposed, with C=O on its edge and plane
  • Determining atomic position and configuration from precise imaging offers the possibility to link nanoscale structure and composition with material function


Application Brief
Chloride Incorporation Process in CH3NH3PbI3–xClx Perovskites via Nanoscale Bandgap Maps

  • CH3NH3PbI3-xClx perovskites enable the creation of highly efficient solar cells
  • PTIR was used in this study to measure the bandgap of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx films and determine local chloride content
  • Despite small chloride content, CH3NH3PbI3-xClx films showed better thermal stability than CH3NH3PbI3 films fabricated by the same method
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Application Brief: Experimental Demonstration of the Microscopic Origin of Circular Dichroism in Two-Dimensional Metamaterials

  • AFM-IR and s-SNOM have been used in combination to probe the role of chirality in the circular dichroism observed in nanoscale 2D metasurfaces
  • By accessing both the radiative (s-SNOM) and non-radiative (AFM-IR) information on plasmonics structures, unique and complementary plasmonic properties can be obtained.
  • s-SNOM is used to map the optical energy distribution of 2D metasurfaces.
  • AFM-IR is used to detect the Ohmic heating in the structure.
  • For the first time, it has been conclusively established the circular dichroism observed in 2D metasurfaces is attributed to handedness dependent Ohmic heating.
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Application Brief: CH3NH3PbI3 Perovskites: Ferroelasticity Revealed

  • AFM-IR was used to find evidence of ferroelasticity in CH3NH3PbI3 polycrystalline films and crystals
  • No evidence of conomitant ferroelectricity was observed
  • The configuration of ferroelastic domains can be controlled with applied stress
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Application Brief: Tip-Enhanced Infrared Nanospectroscopy via Molecular Expansion Force Detection

  • AFM-IR collects spectra of molecular monolayers and monolayer islands with high spatial resolution


Application Brief: Touching Is Believing: Interrogating Halide Perovskite Solar Cells at the Nanoscale via Scanning Probe Microscopy

  • Halide perovskite solar cells are an exciting development in the next generation photovoltaic technologies
  • There is need for a method to investigate the local photovoltaic properties of halide perovskite solar cells that can be directly traced to their microstructures and device performance
  • AFM-IR has great potential to realize such promises at the nanoscale, and highlight some of the recent progresses and challenges along this line of investigation toward local probing of photocurrent, work function, ionic activities, polarization switching, and chemical degradation

Failure Analysis and Materials Characterization

  • AFM-IR uniquely and unambiguously identifies organic nano-contaminants on wafer, media and slider substrates
  • Simultaneous nanoscale chemical and property mapping information
  • Measurement of nano-contamination as defects for semiconductor and data storage companies
  • Nanoscale IR spectroscopy of semiconductors

Life Sciences

Application Note 106: Visualizing Lipid Content in Stratum Corneum Using AFM-IR

  • AFM-IR spectroscopy uniquely and unambiguously identifies the chemical composition of cells, tissues, and other biological matter


Application 
Note 108: Life Sciences

  • Nanoscale IR spectroscopy is used to acquire chemical composition of biological materials with nanoscale spatial resolution
  • nanoIR is able to generate accurate and relevant chemical spectra at nanoscale resolutions far below the diffraction limit

Application Note 201: High-Resolution Chemical Imaging with Tapping AFM-IR

  • Tapping AFM-IR brings the power of both IR spectroscopy and AFM topography mapping to a much wider range of applications
  • Broadening the AFM-IR technique to include softer samples was enabled by the development of tapping mode–based IR measurements, where the tip is not continuously in contact with the sample but instead taps, making intermittent contact with the surface

Application Brief: AFM-IR Characterization of Miscibility for Pharmaceutical Systems

  • Complementary and multi-modal techniques of AFM, AFM-IR, nanoTA and contact resonance measurements were used to evaluate the miscibility behavior of TPV with 3 polymers
  • Phase separation was observed with HPMC and PVPVA at drug loadings about 10%


Application Brief: Studying Variations in Bone Composition at Nano-Scale Resolution

  • AFM-IR delivers novel compositional analysis on bone variation at nanometer scale
  • Investigations done on a non-human primate osteon at nm spatial resolution

 
Application Brief: Nanoscale IR Spectroscopy of Protein Lipid-Containing Membranes

  • AFM-IR used to examine lipoprotein multi-bilayers formed by lipid-protein membranes that contain a mixture of two chloroplast lipids

 
Application Brief: Localization of Human Hair Structural Lipids Using Nanoscale Infrared Spectroscopy and Imaging

  • AFM-IR is proven to be capable of producing IR spectra and absorption images at a sub-micrometer spatial resolution
  • Enables human hair to be spectroscopically characterized at levels not previously possible.

 
Application Brief: Nanoscale Probing of Electron-Regulated Structural Transitions in Silk Proteins by Near-Field IR Imaging and Nano-Spectroscopy

  • AFM-IR and s-SNOM have been used in combination to probe the protein secondary structure changes of silk proteins induced by electron beam exposure
  • Due to the direct correlation of AFM-IR with conventional infrared spectroscopy, protein secondary structure analysis can now be extended to the nanoscale

Mechanical Property Mapping

  • Lorentz Contact Resonance (LCR) reliably compares viscoleastic properties with nanoscale spatial resolution
  • With no moving parts in the piezo drive system, LCR provides clean cantilever resonance spectra with no parasitic peaks

Nanothermal Analysis

  • nanoTA has excellent correlation with bulk DSC and TMA
  • nanoTA is able to provide accurate thermal analysis of localized areas on samples or on very small quantities of material