A new Breakthrough

Classical pulse-EPR has been using single frequency, square-shaped microwave pulses for decades. For around 10 years, a second microwave frequency has been widely used for Electron-Electron Double Resonance (ELDOR) experiments. Pulse shaping and a higher degree of pulse flexibility have been hindered by the lack of any suitable high speed digital technology. Now, with the technology of Arbitrary Waveform Generators (AWG) we can take the next step in pulse-EPR. All waveform features that can be described mathematically can now be implemented in a pulse sequence - a true breakthrough for pulse-EPR.

The SpinJet-AWG introduces a new era in pulse EPR. With several examples, we demonstrate the exciting new opportunities and possibilities available. For ease of operation, complete control over the pulse parameters - including frequency, shape, phase and amplitude - is fully implemented in Xepr. User definition of experiments is further extended via PulseSPEL. Compensation of technical limitations and restrictions imposed by sample properties can be addressed via the optimum control methodology. This methodology is expected to lead to significant improvements in all fields of pulse-EPR spectroscopy. The Optimum Control Pulse waveform definition is readily available from the Xepr interface (tables and PulseSPEL).




  • Frequency definition for each pulse
  • High resolution phase setting
  • Pulse shapes within shot
  • Pulse amplitude control within shot
  • Frequency chirps within pulse
  • Multiple channel architecture
  • Overlapping pulses
  • Optimum Control Pulse input function
  • Full Xepr implementation
  • I/Q vector modulator with LO suppression network
Overlapping channels
Related Information