NANOGRAPHY - SAXS - WAXS - GISAXS
The NANOSTAR with its incomparable modularity is the ideal tool for characterization of nanostructures and nanostructured surfaces by Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering (SAXS), Grazing-Incidence Small-Angle X-ray Scattering (GI-SAXS), Wide-Angle X-Ray Scattering (WAXS), and Nanography. The mirror-conditioned pinhole collimation system produces a parallel, ideal circular beam shape with high intensity and low parasitic scatter. The extra-large (XL) sample chamber accommodates a variety of dedicated and 3rd party sample stages for measurements of many sample types under all conditions. Finally the scattered signal is collected with a large, low background, highly sensitive 2D detector for isotropic and anisotropic samples.
This unique X-ray source supplies a very stable and intense spot-focus X-ray beam without the need for water cooling. Thanks to its robust design, the source comes with a 3-year warranty. The IµS includes integrated MONTEL, state-of-the-art 2-D beam-shaping optics, for highest intensity on the sample. This side-by-side multilayer mirror design captures a large solid-angle of x-ray from the source and efficiently redirects in a highly parallel and monochromatic beam.
This conveniently oversized (XL) sample chamber comes with many extra feed-through ports and can be operated under vacuum, inert gas, or atmospheric conditions. It can accommodate many additional standard components for individualized handling of multiple samples as well as 3rd party and custom stages for maximum visibility. A motorized X-Y stage with large translation range and secondary motorized reference sample holder wheel make automated sample alignment and reference and background scans a snap!
The VANTEC-500 2-D detector with MikrogapTM technology satisfies all of the ideal requirements of a dedicated SAXS system. First, no need for gas, water, or routine maintenance and no concerns for intense radiation or movement damage results in detector that is robust and very easy to use. A large active area (14 cm diameter) to enable huge angular coverage with full field of view. Incredibly low background and high maximum count rate for fantastic dynamic range and sensitivity to weakly scattering samples. Excellent spatial resolution to resolve closely spaced scattering features. No other detector can offer these combination of ideal features for these applications.
IµS micro-focus source
XL SAMPLE CHAMBER
VÅNTEC-500 2D detector
Small Angle X-ray Scattering (SAXS) is a phenomenon caused by particles embedded in a matrix of different electron density. If the particle size ranges from 1 nm to 200 nm, the scattering angle lies within the range of 0° to 5°, depending on the X-ray wavelength used. The smaller the particles are, the wider are the scattering angles.
Any arrangement of particles in any medium shows a difference in electron density, which results in a specific pattern when executing a SAXS experiment. Along with the size of the particles, SAXS can also determine their shape, their distance apart and size distribution from the 2-D pattern. Particles can be dissolved macromolecules, precipitations in metals, mineral particles in biological tissues, and surfactant micelles.
In contrast to SAXS, Wide Angle X-ray Scattering (WAXS) examines structures on the Angstrom level, which are typically interplanar distances of crystalline structures. Often WAXS is used to analyze Bragg the X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern which can help determine crystalline structure, degree of crystallinity, crystallite size, and phase composition (Phase ID). WAXS data can be collected at the same time (simultaneously) as SAXS data with a 2nd detector positioned much closer to the sample.
To probe the surface and subsurface structural details, samples are measured in grazing incidence geometry. The incident angles are close to the so-called critical angle of total reflection and typically lie between 0.1 and 0.7 degrees. In a Grazing Incidence Small Angle X-ray Scattering (GISAXS) experiment, the diffusely scattered intensity is collected in the non-coplanar direction by means of a 2-D detector.
A dedicated GI-SAXS stage with motorized tilt is used to align the sample in the beam.
A Nanography investigation utilizes the motor-driven XY stage integrated into the sample chamber of the NANOSTAR. This allows a selected region of the sample to be scanned through the X-ray beam automatically. The intensity distribution (or other scattering parameter) can then be displayed by means of a color-coded contour plot.
Nanography permits fast and selective detection of relevant measuring points with inhomogeneous samples and allows even small samples to be positioned precisely. Each individual point of the complete Nanography image itself represents the integral SAXS/WAXS intensity collected by the 2-D.
Nanography: Wood slice
SAXS: Micellar samples
SAXS: Collagen fiber
IµS micro-focus source
Air-cooled, high intensity, micro-focus X-Ray source
Low power usage (30W)
3 year standard warranty
No need for water chiller
High power density leads to increased intensity
Integrated Montel mirrors for ideal beam conditioning
Ideal circular beam shape with negligible parasitic background scatter.
No parasitic aperture edge scattering
Higher resolution / Higher flux
More compact collimation beampath allows longer detector distance
Easy, stable, pinhole alignment
XL Sample Chamber
Extra-Large chamber, with motorized XY-stage for sample positioning, mapping and accommodation of versatile standard and 3rd party stages.
Inner dimensions: 287 mm x 501 mm x 380 mm (W x H x D)
Flanges for additional supply connections
XY-stage with 80 mm x 130 mm translation
Motorized reference sample wheel
Operation in vacuum, air, or inert gas atmosphere
VÅNTEC-500 2D detector
Large active area, low background, high sensitivity 2D detector
Large active area (14 cm diameter) for full frame of view SAXS/WAXS scattering images
Very low background for highest sensitivity
Excellent spatial resolution (68 micron pixel size)
Maintenance-free (no water/air required or sensitivity to strong primary beam or detector movement under bias)