DataCube modes expand capabilities, such as PeakForce TUNA and PeakForce KPFM, by enabling the acquisition of multidimensional data cubes. For materials scientists and engineers, this breaks long-standing efficiency and characterization barriers. These new capabilities provide simultaneous capture of nanometer-scale electrical and mechanical characteristics in high-density data cubes, previously impossible to attain in a single measurement.
DataCube modes utilize FASTForce Volume to perform a force-distance spectrum in every pixel, with a user-defined 'dwell time'. Using high data capture rates, a multitude of electrical measurements are performed during the dwell time, resulting in electrical and mechanical spectra at every pixel. Typical force-distance spectra, measured at a ramp rate of 40 Hz with a 100 ms dwell time per pixel, provide full characterization in a single experiment, which is unheard of in a commercial AFM. It is no longer an epic experiment to simultaneously render topographical, mechanical, and multidimensional electrical information. Now such data can be achieved as a routine AFM measurement. DataCube mode renders multidimensional data cubes at nanometer-length scales with compound data in every scan. This capability enables a powerful series of new modes.
Conductive AFM results are influenced by the applied sample voltage, depicting important performance transitions of a material or device. DCUBE-TUNA enables simultaneous acquisition of nanomechanical information and electrical conductivity at a multitude of sample voltages in a single measurement, building a dense data cube of sample information. This is the only mode providing a complete picture of the sample conductivity, with details such as conductivity type (Ohmic, non-Ohmic, Schottky, etc.), and barrier heights.
Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) provides a method for direct measurement of active carrier concentration with nanometer-scale accuracy. DCUBE-SCM enables simultaneous acquisition of nanomechanical and carrier information at a multitude of sample voltages in a single measurement. The technique provides a unique solution to observe dC/dV amplitude and dC/dV phase value changes and junction position shifts. Through the resulting data cubes, a researcher can observe additional information on oxide thickness, oxide charges, threshold voltages, contamination from mobile ions, and interface trap density.
Piezoresponse (Piezoforce) Microscopy (PFM) is a technique that maps out the inverse piezoelectric effect on a sample at nanometers scale. DCUBE-PFM enables simultaneous acquisition of nanomechanical information and PFM amplitude/phase spectra in data cubes, which reveal the switching voltage of each individual domain in a single data set. In addition, DCUBE-PFM overcomes artifacts, sample damage, and complexity of data analysis associated with conventional Contact Mode approaches.
DCUBE piezoresponse (piezoforce) microscopy in conjunction with contact resonance provides the benefits of DCUBE-PFM with the added benefit of providing a frequency ramp at every pixel, providing a full spectrum and the peak sensitivity at the contact resonance.
Scanning Spreading Resistance Microscopy (SSRM) is used to map the variation in majority carrier concentration in doped semiconductors. DCUBE-SSRM enables simultaneous acquisition of nanomechanical information and 3D carrier density mapping in a single measurement. The resulting data cubes provide complete characterization including nanoscale topography, mechanical information and log-resistance spectroscopy. In addition, I-V measurements reveal conductivity whether Ohmic, non-Ohmic, Schottky, or other.
Scanning Microwave Microscopy Imaging (sMIM) provides maps of the capacitive (C ) and resistive (R ) part of the impedance, as well as dC/dV, and dR/dV data – at a user defined sample voltage. With DCUBE-sMIM one can acquire the same properties at a variety of sample voltages, in a single scan - and get the ‘full picture’ at once. The spectra also reveal additional information, such as conduction type (Ohmic, non-Ohmic, Schottky, etc.), oxide thickness, oxide charges, contamination from mobile ions, and interface trap density.