AFM Modes

Force Modulation Microscopy (FMM)

A straightforward path to elasticity and adhesion data

Force Modulation Microscopy™ (FMM) reveals information about a sample’s mechanical properties, such as elasticity or adhesion. This method is useful for materials with nonuniform mechanical properties, like polymer blends and metal alloys.

FMM uses a Contact Mode detection scheme to monitor changes in sample topography, while simultaneously applying a high frequency signal to the cantilever. Changes in sample stiffness, adhesion, or friction affect the cantilever’s oscillation and provide qualitative nanomechanical data.


Topography (left) and force modulation amplitude (right) image of a cryo-microtomed multilayer polyethylene sample. The force modulation amplitude image reveals layers of alternating material stiffness (40µm scan size).