Microelectronic components are of increasing complexity. The size and distances of the surface mounted devices (SMD) and integrated circuits (ICs) are getting smaller and the wires and connections are implemented in several layers within the printed circuit board (PCB). Therefore, analytical methods to approach these sort of samples need both, a high spatial resolution and the capability to look into the depth of the sample. Micro-XRF is an imaging technique which combines spatial resolution of roughly 20 µm with a very high elemental sensitivity for most metals. It can therefore be a companion in the complete life cycle of electronic components, from R&D for novel designs and materials to recycling of precious metal components. The main application is failure analysis and quality management including layer thickness measurements; for instance for Au contacts and bond pads, or solder bumps. The method can be used for a qualitative pre-screening of RoHS- and WEEE-relevant elements. Looking for the abundance and locations of precious metals or harmful substances support efficient waste treatment or recycling of electronic components.