Force Modulation Microscopy (FMM)

A straightforward path to elasticity and adhesion data

Force Modulation Microscopy (FMM™) reveals information about a sample’s mechanical properties, such as elasticity or adhesion. This method is useful for materials with nonuniform mechanical properties, like polymer blends and metal alloys.

FMM uses a Contact Mode detection scheme to monitor changes in sample topography, while simultaneously applying a high frequency signal to the cantilever. Changes in sample stiffness, adhesion, or friction affect the cantilever’s oscillation and provide qualitative nanomechanical data.

Featured on the following Bruker AFMs:

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Force_modulation_microscopy_1.png
Topography (left) and force modulation amplitude (right) image of a cryo-microtomed multilayer polyethylene sample. The force modulation amplitude image reveals layers of alternating material stiffness (40µm scan size).