Large Area Mapping (Hypermaps) using SEM-XRF can be performed on samples with topography. That is, minimal sample preparation is required and the sample can be analyzed directly without any degredation. This is particularly relevant in the analysis of soils, where any form of sample preparation, such as mounting and polishing or carbon coating, may alter the specimen. The micro-XRF can analyze soil samples directly, as shown in Fig. 1. This includes major elements but also trace elements or trace mineral phases that may incorporate contaminants or toxins (see Fig. 2). In this example, grains containing Pb and As contaminants are identified.