The Intermediate Frequency Concept

Stepping up & down in frequency

Bruker BioSpin utilizes the Intermediate Frequency (IF) concept for achieving operating frequencies greater than and less than X-band (9 GHz).  The most significant advantage of this technique is that the proven X-band technology for excitation and detection is retained regardless of the frequency used for excitation of the paramagnetic species.

  • Utilizes proven X-band technologies
  • Transfers all X-band bridge features to new operational frequency
    • ELDOR
    • MPFU
    • SPFU
  • Reduces cost and complicity for adding additional microwave frequencies

Within the IF concept, the frequency for excitation and detection is at X-band (9.2 - 9.9 GHz).  The CW and pulse (SPFU, MPFU, and ELDOR) excitation frequency is then converted to the desired operational frequency using the Local Oscillator (LO).  The resulting operational frequency (W-, Q-, S-, or L-band) is then directed to the appropriate resonator.  The resonator response is then converted back to X-band again using the LO for detection via the CW or pulse arm in the X-band bridge.