M4 TORNADO, 2D µ-XRF, Ultimate Speed and Accuracy

The Variety of Application Fields

Analytical performance

Limits of detection in dependence of atomic number
Limit of Detection (LOD)

The analytical performance of Micro-XRF instruments is defined by several parameters. Some of the most important aspects of this analytical technique are explained considering the example of the M4 TORNADO. More info

Distribution analysis of electronic components

Limits of detection in dependence of atomic number
PCB of a digital watch

Electrical and electronic equipment can contain toxic elements like Cr, Br, Cd, Hg or Pb. Limits are regulated by directives such as RoHS and WEEE. Compliance testing as well as monitoring the product quality can be easily done with the M4 TORNADO. More info

Analysis of solar cells

Limits of detection in dependence of atomic number
Structure of a CIGS solar cell

The efficiency of solar cells depends on their chemical composition and physical structure. In most cases the absorber of thin film cells is produced from CIGS-layers, which are Cu-In-Ga-Se or Cu-In-Ga-S compounds. Micro-XRF is ideal for R&D and quality control to check composition, thickness and homogeneity of these layers. More info

Life science application – analyzing Daphnia

Limits of detection in dependence of atomic number
Inorganic constituents of a Daphnia

Daphnia are planktonic crustaceans. Because of their small size of 0.2 to 5 mm and their jumpy swimming style, they are also known as “water fleas”. The M4 TORNADO is well suited for heavy element analysis on biological samples like these. More info

Particle analysis

Limits of detection in dependence of atomic number
Particle spectra

It is often important to analyze small particles with regard to their composition to determine their origin. Here, two different examples are described: wear debris from an engine and inclusions in plastics. More info

Analyzing geological samples

Limits of detection in dependence of atomic number
Elemental distribution in a rock

Geological samples are inhomogeneous. The distribution analysis of their different constituents is important for understanding geological processes, exploration of mineral resources, and other applications. More info

Coating analysis

Limits of detection in dependence of atomic number
XData for layer analysis

The software XData is available for the analysis of metal coatings on many different substrates. Both thickness and composition of layers can be determined, even in case of complicated multi-layer systems. More info

Examining corrosion processes of low-alloy steel

Limits of detection in dependence of atomic number

Low-alloy steel is highly sensitive to corrosion. This is the reason why parts and structures made of this steel are often protected by a Zn or a ZnAl coating. Here we look at analysis results of differently treated steel samples to better understand corrosion processes. More info

Archaeometry – examination of a Roman sword

Limits of detection in dependence of atomic number
Inlaying (Part) on a Roman sword

Archaeometric objects are unique and very fragile, therefore a non-destructive analysis, like Micro-XRF, is the method of choice in learning more about such an object without damaging it. More info

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