Minerals: Mining and Mineral Processing

Geochemistry with XRF

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is the most accepted analytic technology for grade control in mineral production and processing.

Mining Process Optimization with XRF

The quality of an ore extracted from the ground is never constant. This makes frequent monitoring of raw and sometimes partially processed material a critical part of all mining projects.

X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) is the most accepted analytic technology for grade control in mineral production and processing. Bruker’s wide range of XRF instrumentation  can meet any need in production monitoring for mining in the goal of separating waste form ore. XRF works by measuring the secondary x-ray fluorescence generated by elements when they are excited by a primary x-ray source. The XRF analyzer can measure the elemental concentration in rocks. The elemental concentration can be used to identify grade, sub-grade and waste and prevent the dilution of ore by waste rock. The advantages of XRF  include:

  • XRF is fast, analyzing all elements from a single spectrum 

  • Analyze a wide range of elements from carbon to americium 

  • Measure concentration of elements from trace (ppm) to 100% 

  • Simple and fast sample preparation 

  • Easy process automation and incorporation of robotic sample changes 

  • The possibility of non-destructive elemental analysis of core

Bruker provides mineral grade control and resource estimation solutions by offering full-size and benchtop WDXRF, versatile EDXRF and portable XRF instruments for elemental analysis in central laboratories, on-site labs and in the field.

Wavelength Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometers

Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometers (WDXRF) are known for their unrivalled accuracy, precision and reliability. WDXRF spectrometers have met the needs of many industrial applications, where robust instrumentation and high precision are the keys to success. 

The S8 TIGER Series 2 sequential WDXRF provides outstanding superior analytical performance for the most demanding mineral and mining applications. This analytical performance results from the innovative optimized X-ray optics. The S8 TIGER combines extreme ease-of-use and robust reliability with superior analytical performance.

Rapid WDXRF Spectrometer for the Fastest Results!

The new S8 LION WDXRF spectrometer provides the fastest time-to-result for process and quality control in the cement, minerals and mining industries. 

Based on multichannel technology, the S8 LION delivers very precise and accurate results, within the shortest measurement time, for up to 16 elements. Several languages are available for its interface: English, Spanish, Chinese, Russian and Portuguese.

Benchtop Energy-Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometers

Elemental analysis with energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) spectrometry has become an indispensable tool for research and industry. Reliable results, analytical flexibility, robust all-in-one design and low cost-of-operation make the unique S2 PUMA Series 2 benchtop  EDXRF the ideal solution for process and quality control applications; for example,  cement, minerals and mining, and metals. 


For dedicated analytical tasks, monitoring and field work in geology and exploration, the S2 PUMA Series 2, equipped with the intuitive TouchControlTM interface, is the right choice to serve all needs for mobility, flexibility and ease-of-use in combination with best performance.

Handheld and Portable XRF

The new Bruker CTX is a portable countertop XRF with a battery backup and safety interlocked lid

Portable and handheld XRF allow the projection of geochemical analysis closer to operations and into the field. Portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectrometers offer immediate elemental analysis in support of geochemical mapping, core scanning and routine geochemical operations like grade control. Bruker’s experts can help design a measurement program that:  

  • Provides mission-critical geochemical data quickly from any point in the mine lifecycle or commodity value chain 

  • Has appropriate sample preparation including pulping 

  • Utilizes a matrix-matched calibration 

  • Includes a robust QA/QC protocol including sample duplicates, blanks and reference standards

  • Incorporates verification of at least 10% of results by complementary methods like WDXRF

  • Updates the calibration based on verification results and recalculates data to become more accurate with time

Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometers

Total reflection XRF (TXRF) is an emerging method for aqueous geochemistry, powders or digested rocks in mining. Detection limits down to ppb range can be achieved  on small samples with no dilution, no consumable gas and simple sample preparation. TXRF is an ideal method for testing effluent, runoff, pit water, soil and other wastewater for heavy metals like cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and selenium (Se). For example, mercury can be analysed in water with good precision when concentration levels are above about 30 µg/l. Bruker offers two models of TXRF:

  • S2 PICOFOX is a single excitation source 25 sample TXRF  is  just as at-home on-site as it is in the lab. Measure form aluminum (Al) to uranium (U)

  • S4 T-STAR is a duel excitation source, high-throughput 90 sample TXRF for measurements from sodium (Na) to uranium (U), the ultimate tool for full coverage of the periodic table

Micro- XRF Empowers Spatial Geochemistry of Samples

Potassium (K), silver (Ag), and gold (Au) map of Epithermal Au-Ag Veins from Japan

The detailed characterization of core, hand sample, RC drill chips, or sediment samples is fundamental to both greenfield and brownfield exploration. Micro-XRF is a new tool for this characterization, empowering highly accurate large-area geochemical mapping of samples without the need for intensive sample preparation. Bruker’s micro-XRF series provides: 

  • Visualization of the spatial distribution of geochemistry with relative abundance and quantified elemental maps from Na to U in the M4 TORNADO and C to Am in the M4 TORNADOPLUS

  • Rapid quick-look screening for indicator minerals, calculations of indices at the grain scale 

  • Targeted single-spot or line-scan bulk-rock quantification with spot size to 18 µm polycarpellary high-brilliance spot, or with optional 0.5 mm, 1 mm, 2 mm and 4.5 mm columnated x-ray source 

  • Calculate bulk-rock geochemistry from maps including  user-selected polygons 

  • Ability to add micro-XRF capabilities to a scanning electron microscope with the QUANTAX Micro-XRF and mineral mapping with M4 TORNADO AMICS

Related Products





Elemental Range

S8 TIGER Series 2

Sequential WDXRF 

Up to 75 position XY-autochanger 

300 µm or 1.25 mm spot 

Carbon to americium (C – Am)


Simultaneous WDXRF   

Up to 12 position XY-autochanger 

300 µm or 1.25 mm spot

Carbon to americium (C – Am) 


Benchtop sequential WDXRF

Up to 24 position XY-autochanger


Carbon to americium (C – Am)

S2 PUMA Series 2

Benchtop EDXRF 

Up to 20 position XY Autochanger or 18 position carousel


Carbon to americium (C – Am)


Micro-XRF for SEM with 100 µm spot 

Varies by SEM

50 mm travel distance RapidStage™

Carbon to americium (C – Am)


Benchtop Micro-XRF, ~18 µm spot polycarpellary; optional 0.5, 1, 2, 4.5 mm columnated

Large chamber with X-Y mapping stage, optional core holder and thin section holder

Rapid elemental mapping with a mapping area of 190 mm X 160 mm

Sodium to Uranium (Na – U


Benchtop Micro-XRF, ~18 µm spot polycarpellary; optional 0.5, 1, 2, 4.5 mm columnated

Mapping area of 190 mm X 160 mm, , optional core holder and thin section holder

Rapid elemental mapping with a mapping area of 190 mm X 160 mm

Carbon to americium (C – Am)

S1 TITAN 800

Handheld EDXRF, open beam, 8 mm spot size, 5 mm optional 

1 sample 


Magnesium to Uranium (Mg – U) 


Handheld EDXRF, open beam, 8 mm spot size

1 sample 


Iron to Uranium (Fe – U) 


Portable EDXRF, safety interlocked, 8 mm spot size, 5 mm optional

1 sample 


Magnesium to Uranium (Mg – U) 


Handheld XRF, open beam, 8 mm spot size

1 sample


Fluorine to Uranium (F-U)


Portable Benchtop TXRF 

Up to 25 samples 


Aluminum to Uranium (Al – U) 


Benchtop TXRF 

Up to 90 samples 


Sodium to Uranium (Na – U)